Graham-Marr talked about the potentially infinite number of communicative needs an English learner may face: textbooks cannot possibly cover all situations. According to Graham-Marr the only thing that a teacher can safely predict about students future communicative needs is that they’re likely to face difficulties. As such, teaching speaking strategies provides the students tools to cope to help with difficulties. Teaching these strategies within a communicative framework empowers students and helps compensate for their lack of language. Speaking strategies discussed included conversation openers, elaboration, involvement questions, clarification, and asking for repetition.
Graham-Marr has recently written a new speaking and listening text, Communication Spotlights, that is designed around these communication strategies.